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Canadian Aviation Corps C.E.F. 1st Cont., (D.H.H. 2) Air Farce Folklore, 1914-15


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P.B.A., the below are snippets deriving from a first draft study-paper; those requiring a comprehensive account with more newspaper clippings of the day, fallow short link: http://wp.me/p55eja-K8

S.V.P.: The below fallows Janney, etc., from 1914-19, while part II still not published, is completed, a newspaper timeline covering 1920-30s.

Canada’s National Defence Directorate of History and Heritage (DHH) founded in 1996, following the amalgamation of the National Defence History Directorate and the Directorate of Military Traditions and Heritage. The roots of our organization go all the way back to the First World War. Section 2 of (DHH), namely DHH 2, is responsible for fulfilling its primary role of researching and writing official histories of the Canadian Forces and Department of National Defence. In addition to producing official histories, DHH 2 is tasked from time to time with the research and writing of commemorative histories to mark significant milestones in Canadian military history and other historical studies which will be useful to official historians in the future. Mandated to preserve and communicate Canada’s military history and foster pride in Canadian military heritage.

DHH 2, 1938 narrative compared too 1962 – 64, omitting vital information, embellishing the account as fallows: —

DHH 2, OH The Canadian Forces In The Great War 1914-19 Vol. I.  1938. The First Contingent At Valcartier Camp: Chapter II p.69 as fallows: —
Two other special units associated with the Contingent must also be mentioned here—not because of their strength, as their combined total personnel never exceeded ten, but because both were innovations in the Canadian forces. The first of these, although not regularly established by orders, may be considered as the forerunner of a larger organization which came into being later. In August the Minister had offered to send six aviators with the Contingent, and Lord Kitchener had agreed; early in September the Minister accepted the services of two Ontario-born aviators, “understood to be accomplished and experienced,” and one of them was “appointed provisional Commander of the Canadian Aviation Corps”; but the number remained at two, and the corps itself was not authorized. Although never attested in the C.E.F., the two aviators proceeded to England with the Contingent to qualify for the Royal Flying Corps. Their equipment consisted of “one Burgess-Dunne biplane,” flown from the factory at Marblehead, Mass., to Valcartier, and then crated to England, but never again assembled. Of the two aviators one returned to civil life in Canada, January 1915; the other, Lieut. W.F. Sharpe, after undergoing instructional flying in France—the first Canadian aviator to fly there—was killed on 4th February 1915, on his first solo flight in England while attached to the R.F.C.

DHH 2, OH CEF FWW 1914-19, 1964: — (There was no air force; in 1909, the year of the first aeroplane flight in Canada, the Militia Council had witnessed demonstration flights at Petawawa, but a very limited Canadian military flying service was not organised until after war broke out)……….. On 25 August 1914 Colonel Sam Hughes cabled Lord Kitchener an offered to send aviators with the First Contingent. Kitchener asked for six, but only two could be provided. They were organized into a short-lived provisional “Canadian Aviation Corps” at Valcartier, and with one aeroplane, purchased in the United States, they accompanied the First Contingent to England. One aviator almost immediately returned to civil life in Canada. The other, Lieutenant W.F. Sharpe, underwent instructional training in France, but was killed on 4 February 1915 while making his first solo flight in England. Their American aircraft never left the ground.

Considering both narratives if C.A.C. was not authorised, and its members attested like C.E.F., no one could be appointed provisional Commander with a Captain’s commission, in a Canadian ‘provisional’ phantom aviation corps. Document of provisional unites listed, a flying corps is nonexistent in the first place; “the two aviators proceeded to England with the Contingent to qualify for the Royal Flying Corps.” True; on S.S. Athenia ships manifest she transported the hydroplane, while the S.S. Franconia including “two aviators and one mechanic” aboard, not as a flying unit, “attached to the headquarter staff.” Therefore the latter implies, C.-in-C., “Uncle Sam” Hughes’ after offering six, only mustered two, showing good form contributed the hydroplane, after being manipulated by Janney. “Lord Kitchener had agreed; early in September accepted the services of two aviators, to qualify for the RFC,” while Hughes’ bluntly advises Alderson: “Janney and Sharpe were sent to join the Royal Flying Corps,” “not intended to organise a flight unit.” Outspoken Hughes, in official bio, 1914-15 documents, press, etc., personally never mentions, he authorised CAC and made one aviator or Janney its provisional commander with the rank of Captain, nor will documents etc., ever surface.

Owing to DHH 2, misleading, hazy, and vague accounts, “fostering pride in Canadian military heritage,” the questions too ask:—

1. What year was Canada’s first authorised Air Corps, Sept. 1914, or Sept. 1918?
2. Was the CAC, an officially authorised unit, and where’s the Documents’ supporting the facts?
3. In the Sessional Paper 40, etc., CAC are not recorded, All, provisional contributions and “special units” are?
4. Janney & Sharpe, “understood to be accomplished and experienced aviators,” by hum?
5. The hydroplane was $5000, or $7500usf., + expenses, a portion pocketed by Janney?
6. Landing at Sorel for fuel, Janney and C. Webster are arrested by Canada Customs?
7. The BD-1B biplane delayed by the arrest, and engine problems for 7 days?
8. Accounts claim delayed 3 days for repairs, Québec City is 1hr by air?
9. Date the biplane arrived and landed on St. Lawrence River at Québec City docks?
10. The status quo account on the biplane being disassembled, crated, loaded on the ship?
11. Time, date SS Athenia left dock drifted and anchored, Master received sealed orders?
12. While at Gaspe Bay, when was the SS Athenia authorised to set steam for Plymouth?
13. Mainstream misleading recycled account, CAC boarded and set sail on SS Athenia?
14. Halliday: Did Hughes forget, given up on it, or Kitchener approves aviators for RFC?
15. “Uncle Sam” Hughes’ advises Alderson: “Janney and Sharpe, were sent to join the Royal Flying Corps,” with no military rank or pay?
16. D.M.D. cables Alderson, “Janney and Sharpe not intended to organise a flight unit”?
17.The folklore surrounding CAC, originates from Janney while in England and Canada?
18. C.A.C. or C. Flying C. was a generic name used by press, etc., from 1915 – 1917?
19. The name CAC first surfaces in The Globe, Tue., Dec., 1, 1914, pg. 9, col. 1?
20. The Globe:–‘A Canadian aviation corps,’ is being organized at Salisbury Plain, and will be attached to the Canadian army when it leaves for the front?
21. Goes MIA on two separate occasions while at Salisbury Plain, totalling ca 6 weeks?
22. Janney’s sous-fonds, etc., cost $116,679.25 the commander states $120,000?
23. Lt.-Gen. E.A.H. Alderson, foiled Janney’s self appointed rank and deceptive, scheme?
24. Uniformed as a British major, aviator, while in England, America and Canada?
25. DHH 2, CEF OH 1938-64; “and one of them was appointed provisional Commander of the Canadian Aviation Corps.” (Why is Janney not mentioned, Lieut. W. F. Sharpe is)?
26. The year Janney’s Canadian Aviation Corps (CAC), historian/author narrative surfaces?
27. Underhanded Janney, foresaw financial gains during the roots of Canadian aviation?
28. Lt.-Col. Cull arranged Janney’s sub-lieut., commission in the Royal Canadian Naval Volunteer Reserve?
29. The Canadian flying corps seeds are rooted with the Royal Flying Corps, Canada, Dec., 1916, though officially an Imperial unit?
30. E.L. Janney insured his legacy as a Canadian military pioneer in aviation history?

With way too many questions up for grabs in the Janney,  CAC saga, I’ll add just one more: —

If ‘Canadian Aviation Corps’ was raised, authorised, organised in Valcartier Camp, while at Salisbury Plain, Janney claims the ‘Canadian Flying Corps’ was not yet established, on May 1915 to a correspondent.

The narrative on Canada’s aviation corps first bearings, are located all over the map, at times cloudy and misleading, depending on historian/author accounts, throughout past decades in historical literature. According too mainstream recycled narrative on Canada’s roots of an Air Force, the majority, 75% claim, extend to the Canadian Aviation Corps (CAC) 1914-15, “humble beginnings.” True, there’s scholars, academies, etc., fully aware of this fiasco in Canadian F.W.W. accounts, critically scrutinising the veracity of C.A.C.’s formation and Janney’s appointment by Hughes. The narrative of a “Canadian aviation corps” surfaced with Janney using the press, on 1st Dec., 1914 and supposedly 2nd Feb., 1915, according to Holliday. However on the morning of 29th Sept., 1914 on his return at Quebec City on the wharf in a brief interview too reporters without Hughes’ present: “I’m going to the front to command the aviators of the Canadian contingent,” further adding, “he’s anxious to recruit Quebec aviator J.M. Landry for the flying corps,” no mention of CAC………………

Considering Janney’s name was dismissed, while Lt. Sharpe is mentioned, DHH 2 accounts for 1938 are not sourced, nor documents supporting the CAC narrative, is problematic and certainly questionable. Furthermore, DHH 2 OH 1962 and 1964 sources: —  Duguid, I, 73. General H.D.G. Crerar to author, 26 Jan 62, HQC 1456-1-3. Janney died in 1941, the Queens University Archives on Subfonds SF71 - creator Janney, Ernest Lloyd, 1929-30 (Creation), championed CAC., and Captain Janney. Unless there’re others that I’m not aware, Roberts, Leslie (1959): There Shall Be Wings is the earliest historian/author account I read. “A Burgess-Dunne plane was purchased in the United States, shipped to Vermont and then flown to Valcartier Quebec, where it was taken apart, crated, and shipped to England. p. 7.” I’m personally aware books were published post FWW on Canadian aviators serving with the RNAS and RFC, plausible there could be earlier accounts. From early 1950s and 60s the formation of CAC was printed by the Canadian press, an introduction to “Canada’s First Military Aircraft.” The press in the 50s narrated DHH 2, OH FWW 1938 account, by the 60s DHH 2, 1962-64 account was used, in both, including Lt. Sharpe’s death and omitting Janney’s name. Considering Aviation In Canada 1917-18, by Alan Sullivan. Lt., R.A.F., published in 1919, makes no mention. Noted in: “A History Of Canadian Naval Aviation 1918-1962,” published in 1965, p.6.: “In October 1918 part of the third contingent committee, consisting of Major Stewart, Captain Barron, Lieutenant Cameron, CEF, and Sub-Lieutenant E.L. Janney, RNCVR, set up shop in Regina to make a selection from the western applicants recruiting for the R.C.N.A.S.

In late 1990s written by Don Nicks a series of articles for North Bay and Moose Jaw base newspapers, covering CAC and Janney’s exploits. Nicks’ article certainly questionable, “Capt Janney flew the aircraft back to Canada, the aircraft was crated for shipping, and the CAC sailed on.” In Sorel, Quebec, Canada Customs detained both, impounding the biplane, later both were released; is a factual account. Legion Magazine: —  July 1, 2004 by Hugh A. Halliday, Air Force, Part 4: —  “A High Flyer, Indeed,” was published, and considered the benchmark on Capt. E.L. Janney’s CAC saga.  It’s a shame on sourcing newspapers avoiding interoperation issues, the complete original columns are not provided, just author’s snippets. Per say: “On Feb. 3, 1915, the Halifax Morning Chronicle, under the headline Canadian Air Man Returns From The Front. Mentions CAC, omitted all references to Sharpe and Farr.” Holliday states’ printed by other Canadian press, conducted a comprehensive search and still looking, considering CAC was used by The Globe 1st Dec., 1914, seriously question if Janney styled it as Canadian Aviation Corps. The afternoon, 29th Sept., 1914 on the wharf while being questioned by a correspondent, makes no mention of a flying unit formation styled as CAC. However Janney reported at Québec City docks, “going to the front to command the aviators of the Canadian contingent.” On 5th Feb., 1915, aviator squadron commander in the Canadian detachment, of the of the British Royal Flying Corps, by the 2nd Mar., Janney stated he served with the British Imperial Aeroplane Corps in Belgium, while on 1st April, his anecdote changes; served with the Royal Flying Corps and by May: When the contingent arrived at Salisbury Plain the officer (Janney) was still attached to headquarters. He, according to himself, was to be in command of the ‘Canadian flying corps’ which was about to be established.

C.-in-C., Lt.-Col. Samuel Hughes’ although critical of militia aviation August 1914: — “Aviation is of no value in war, I do not propose to tie the government up financially to such a ridiculous scheme.” Surprisingly offered aviators to the “Secretary of State for War,” Lord Kitchener 25th Aug., 1914, responded on the 31st, Britannia would accept 6 experienced aviators at the present, with more too follow if needed. Hughes attempts proved fruitless, as only a few applicants were interested, sadly fell short on British requirements. Mustered a mire two individuals, although one was a licensed aviator, the other was a “chin-wagging high flyer.” Furthermore, “did approve, (Hughes) the formation of a small unit accompany the Canadian Expeditionary Force to England,” is not factual. Accounts state, the CAC was authorised on 16th Sept. 1914, consisting of two pilots and one mechanic, while the aeroplane needed to be purchased. Ernest Lloyd Janney, born 16th Jun, 1893, Galt, Ontario, laboured as a motor mechanic operating a garage, incomprehensively was picked. William F.N. Sharpe of Prescott, Ontario, travel to Californian by 1913 instructed by Glenn H. Curtiss as an aviator, and accomplished his schooling. Sharpe was a certified aviator by January 1914, prior to the outbreak of war only four Canadians were licensed, by the Aero Club of America as ‘pilots.’ Harry A. Farr of West Vancouver, British Columbia was chosen as the biplane mechanic; “understood to be accomplished and experienced.” The RCAF Museum, DHH, etc., status quo narrative: E.L. Janney, (at the time 21 years old) or one was appointed “Provisional Commander,” commissioned the rank of Captain, authorised to spend not more then $5,000 for an aeroplane. “Capt. Janney acquired a biplane from the Burgess-Dunne Company in Massachusetts, delivered to Quebec City, arriving on 30th Sept., or 1st Oct.,” according too accounts. Hastily loaded onboard SS Athenia and crated, CAC sailed over the pond…………

According too all the bread crumbs I fallowed:— Vit – ON – Birth Registration, birth certificate 35267 (1893), Ernest Lloyd Janney, Date of Birth: 16 Jun 1893, Gender: Male, Birth County: Waterloo, Father’s Name: Wm W Janney, Saw maker of Galt, Mother’s Name: Elizabeth Friend. Source: http://www.ancesty.ca Digital Images of Birth Certificates Ontario, Canada Birth, 1869-1909. At 21 years of age E.L. Janney worked as a motor mechanic operating an automobile repair garage at Galt, in the township of North Dumfries part of the Waterloo County, Ontario. A self-proclaimed aviator for sometime he wasn’t taken seriously, ridiculed by Galt’s contemptible residents, undeterred by what he believed as their denigration. On 12th September on his own initiative and expense, without having confronted Hughes, traveled to the USA searching for a plane, and turned down by several companies. His quest materialised in Marblehead, Massachusetts, however D-B was reluctant at first with only one plane, eventually persuaded by Janney’s, “chin-waging.” A decisive, tenacious individual, if one considers searching for a built aeroplane, quickly purchased, delivered from American within two weeks till departure date of C.E.F., FC...........

Janney purchased a Burgess-Dunne biplane, “built with parts salvaged from BD-1A crash, renamed, etc., used for demos, and training aviators,” for $5000.00. According to B-D document, in dire need of engine maintenance after allotted running hours expired. After a brief lube job, was crated and shipped by rail to Isle La Motte, on Lake Chaplain in Vermont, and reassembled. On 21st Sept., the biplane took off, with Clifford Lawrence Webster a Burgess test pilot at the controls, and Janney seated in the rear, supposedly flew parts of the rout, the reality, “a passenger along for a joy ride.” While in flight over Québec they landed for fuel at Sorel, arrested and after a phone call “immediately realised,” took off East of Trois-Rivières, the engine stuttered prompting Webster to force-land at, de Chaillons. The company was cabled, hastily sent a new engine, parts and mechanic by train, other accounts adding: “With a complementary Burgess-Dunne invoice for the sum of $2,500us for the repair.” Claims delayed for 3, although the evidence supports 7 days with a new engine, Tuesday 29th nearing noon, the hydroplane took-off and by that afternoon arrived over Québec City, landed on St. Lawrence River. The historical “Clique du Château” concludes on their arrest by Customs at Sorel, “some what problematic, owing to the existence of any published document supporting the fact.” Over two decades ago I dusted off a document, and several years ago, providing credence, they were arrested at Sorel, according too three newspaper columns, 22nd, 30th of 1914 and May, 1915.

Halliday 2004: — “Government documents do not mention this episode, nor did Webster in a letter he wrote at the time.”

Au contraire, there are two uninfluenced published accounts and one by Janney’s meddling in the narrative, while on the Quebec wharf questioned by correspondents, Webster attended to the hydroplane...........


Captain E.L Janney Arrested At Sorel, The Montreal Gazette, 22nd Sept., 1914.


Captain E.L. Janney Arrested at Sorel and fly over Quebec City. The Montreal Daily Mail September 30th 1914.


Capt. Ernest Janney Commander of the Canadian Detachment of the British Royal Flying Corps, The Toronto World 7th Feb., 1915.


Calls for a Canadian Aviation Corps, The Toronto Sunday World, 21st Feb., 1915.
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CAC now Major E.L. Janney British Aviator. The Cornell Daily Sun, Volume 35, Number 117, 3 March 1915.


Capt. E.L. Janney To Start Flying School, The Toronto Sunday World, 28th Mar, 1915.


Captain E.L. Janney and  Lieut. Harley G. Smith in New York, open flying school in Toronto. The Toronto World 2nd April 1915.

The column as fallows: — British Airmen In New York On Way To Toronto —Captain Janney and Lieutenant Smith Will Train Canadian Aviators: New York, 1st April:—Two muddy cheeked young men attired in British uniforms, sat today at a luncheon table in the Aero Club of America. One was Captain E.L. Janney, a squadron commander in the Royal Flying Corps. He is fresh from the battle field. His companion Lieut. Harley G. Smith, they are in America on seven months’ leave for the purpose of training recruits for the flying corps, which soon will part of the Canadian forces. Capt. Janney looked embarrassed when the little group of civilians gathered about the tables importuned him for an account of his experiences. “I don’t know how to tell about those things,” he said. The Captain steer his coffee absently and looked into space for a long time. It seem hard for him to work up anything akin to the atmosphere of the trenches there in the club, surrounded by peaceable citizens, and with the best of viands about him. After several attempts he stumbled into his story.

His Fighting Experience: —“My actual fighting experience covered a period of nine weeks,” he said. “I was stationed with my squadron at Balleuil in France near the Belgium boarder. Most of the time it was rather small. That is to say, the percentage of the time when we were actually doing anything small. While we were at work it was thrilling enough for all of us, I fancy. The importance of the air fleets to the opposing armies cannot be adequately expressed. Directly our forces are preparing to shell the enemy’s position the airmen are sent aloft. The average altitude which we have been in habit of flying is 5000 feet. At that height, while not entirely out of rang, we did not furnish an easy mark. When we have reached a point over the trenches that were to be shelled. We would drop smoke bombs as a guide for our artillery. Up to this time the commanders have found range-finding the most vital use of the aeroplane. Reconnaissance is important but it requires little time for the airmen to keep in tough with enemies movement.” The captain told of the steel darts of the horrible effects of the dart he had seen extracted from the body of a French soldier. The French surgeons, he said, wishes to study the wound and performed a post-mortem examination on the body. It had been found the dart had penetrated the victim’s skull gone directly into his head and neck and finally logged in his stomach…….The German planes speed he said, was capable of eighty-six miles an hour it is unable to limb faster than 750 feet a minute, he declared, as against 1200 feet a minute by the British machines. Thus a advantage could be gained by rising above the tube.”

The Business which has brought them two officers to this country is the establishment of an aviation training school at Toronto. The Farman, biplanes have been shipped from England for the use by the students and Captain Janney announced that he had purchased the old Farman machine, owed by Clifford B. Harmon of this city. The school is open to civilians who desire to enlist in the flying corps of Great Britain, and those who qualify will accompany the Canadian expeditionary forces. Four months are allowed for training, in order to insure that the student will carry out his intention to enlist a fee of $500.00 will be charged for the training. This will be returned in the form of a bonus of $625.00 which will be paid by the Canadian Government when the student has qualified. The actual bonus is $375, but there is a uniform allowance of $250. It is believed that the new program is the first step toward the establishment of a Canadian flying corps, and that the government will soon appropriate at least $500,000., for that purpose. The new field is on the Lawrence Park estate, Toronto, and thirty pupils have registered.


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Capt. Janney Will Enroll Pupils for Aviation School, The Ottawa Evening Citizen, Monday, 5th Apr., 1915.


Canadians Are Called On For Air Service. The Toronto World, 14 Apr. 1915.


Flying Corps Not Needed in The Dominion Now. The Toronto World, 14 Apr. 1915.


The Canadian Aviation Co., Starts Training Aviators Today, The Toronto World 30th Apr. 1915.

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Captain E.L. Janney Inquisition. The Toronto World 6th May 1915.

The Toronto World, 6th May 1915. — What Standing Has Janney as Flying Teacher. —  Does Man Who is Conducting Aviation School Hold Credentials. — “Aeroplane Says.” Official Magazine Picks New York Interview All to Pieces. “Judge by his optimistic talk, Capt. Janney appears to hold the key to the Royal Flying Corps to be grasped by all pupils who wish to put up the sum of $500. Capt. Janney came to Toronto more than two months ago from England, and supposedly France. On reaching New York he gave an interview to a newspaperman, which was published in The New York Tribune and The Toronto World, regarding the establishment of a flying school in Toronto. His statements have since been contradicted by The Aeroplane, a British periodical devoted to aeronautics. This publication stated that Janney’s views are slightly lobsided, or words to that effect.

Lived in Galt: — Captain Janney is an aviation enthusiast. For some little time he conducted a motor garage in Galt, Ont. A few weeks after the outbreak of war he got into communication with the minister of the militia when the First Canadian Division was being mobilised in Valcartier, offering his services as an aviator. At that time he was in New Bedford, Mass. He told General Hughes that he would fly to the camp. At Sorel his machine broke down and he was arrested, the authorities in that town probably never before having seen an aeroplane, and at that time, the country was practically in a state of war. About two days before the boats left Quebec the aviator arrived companied by another airmen named Webster. It has been said that Webster handled the machine and Captain Janney was merely a passenger. Captain Janney was attached to the headquarter staff, and went to England on the steamer Franconia, one of the convoys. When the contingent arrived at Salisbury Plain the officer was still attached to headquarters. He, according to himself, was to be in command of the Canadian flying corps which was about to be established. Lieut. W.F. Sharpe of Ottawa, who was killed a few weeks later while trying out a new machine at Shoreham, and Lieut. Farr, a mechanic, were also to be in the Flying Corps.

Would Establish Corps: — For several weeks it was under stood that Captain Janney was negotiating with Ottawa with the intention of establishing a full flying corps, but, according to the commander, the department of militia balked at handing over $120.000, which would have been the expense entailed. When Ottawa refused to lay aside this amount, it was generally thought that the two Canadian aviators and mechanic would become attached to the Royal Flying Corps. Lieut. Sharpe, who was enthusiastic, and had had some experience in California and other states, was killed. Lieut. Farr may have joined the Royal Flying Corps. Captain Janney returned to Canada.

Why did Janney Return? These are the facts: —  In the latter part of December or early January Capt. Janney obtained leave for a few days he said he was going to London and then France. He was away from Salisbury for several weeks, having overstayed his leave for some little time. He was net heard of at Shoreham camp, where one of the big British army flying schools is located. According to reliable information he was parading about as a staff major-one step above his own rank-and wearing the accompanying red lapels and staff badge on his service cap. British officers, it seems, could not quite swallow Janney’s flamboyant utterances and sent an enquiry to the Canadian headquarters. As a result Janney immediately returned to Salisbury. Very shortly after his name appeared in camp orders to the effect that he was cut off the strength of the force.

Official Magazine Picks New York Interview to Pieces: — The New York Tribune with a sense of being ducked by Janney, brought out the executioner prior to judgement day, Gorden Bruce. The Toronto World narrative: Professing to deal with the “chin-wagging”—one can call it by no other name—of that “Captain” Janney of whom no one in this country seems to have heard the heading of the article ran thus: “Veteran British Airman, Here to Train Canadian Recruits, Finds War Life Dull Except in Spots.” “Veteran” is good, considering that he has not flown in England, or—so far as one can gather—on the continent either, The article continuous: “Two muddy cheeked young men attired in British uniforms, sat today at a luncheon table in the Aero Club of America. One was Captain E.L. Janney, a squadron commander in the Royal Flying Corps…… ” This Janney is not even an officer of the Royal Flying Corps, and if he is still an officer in the British-Canadian service one would like to know what he was doing in uniform in a neutral country if not an embassy attache or an interned officer. He is reported to have said: “My actual fighting experience covered a period of nine weeks. I was stationed with my squadron at Balleuil in France near the Belgium boarder. Most of the time it was rather dull. That is to say, the percentage of the time when we were actually doing anything dull.” So fare as one an gather, the time when he was doing anything, except talk—if he was ever there at all—was nil. Later on said:..................................................


Canadian Aviation Unit Will Not Be Formed, The Toronto World, 22nd Oct., 1915.